The composition and history of different plastics
|Release time:2013-02-28 Source:admin Reads:|
With the development of society, plastic is widely used in our daily life. There are many plastic products such as chairs, bowls, toys, clothes accessories of PVC labels and so on. Commonly most plastics contain organic polymers. The vast majority of these polymers are based on chains of carbon atoms alone or with oxygen, sulfur, or nitrogen as well. The backbone is that part of the chain on the main "path" linking a large number of repeat units together. To customize the properties of a plastic, different molecular groups "hang" from the backbone, they usually are "hung" as part of the monomers before the monomers are linked together to form the polymer chain. The structure of these "side chains" influence the properties of the polymer. This fine tuning of the properties of the polymer by repeating unit's molecular structure has allowed plastics to become an indispensable part of the twenty-first century world.
In the early times, people choose bio-derived materials such as egg and blood proteins, which are organic polymers for early plastics. At that time, there was not PVC labels makers. People just tried to invent more kinds of plastic. Treated cattle horns were used as windows for lanterns in the Middle Ages. Materials that mimicked the properties of horns were developed by treating milk-proteins (casein) with lye. In the 1800s the development of plastics accelerated with Charles Goodyear's discovery of vulcanization as a route to thermoset materials derived from natural rubber. Many storied materials were reported as industrial chemistry was developed in the 1800s.
In the early 1900s, Bakelite, the first fully synthetic thermoset was reported by Belgian chemist Leo Baekeland. After the First World War, improvements in chemical technology led to an explosion in new forms of plastics. Among the earliest examples in the wave of new polymers were polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) which are now commonly used to make PVC labels. The development of plastics has come from the use of natural plastic materials (e.g., chewing gum, shellac) to the use of chemically modified natural materials (e.g., rubber, nitrocellulose, collagen, galalite) and finally to completely synthetic molecules (e.g., bakelite, epoxy, polyvinyl chloride).